Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Huck Finn Novel Analysis I. Setting The story of Huck Finn begins in his hometown of Hannibal, Missouri. Then the setting changes to Jackson Island because Huck decides to run away and live there. After that the setting changes to the Mississippi River and various towns alongside, when Jim and Huck decide they are heading to a state where Jim will be free. The setting immediately reflects the tone of the book because the book is written in a southern dialect and the story is set in the south. The setting is crucial to the actions in the book. If Huck lived in a state where slaves were free, then there would have been no need for Huck and Jim to travel the Mississippi looking for a state where Jim would be a free man. If they had not traveled up the Mississippi then there would not have been any adventures of Huck Finn. II. Characters The protagonist in this story is Jim, a runaway slave. He always looks out for those around him, especially Huck. The three other major characters in the story are Huck Finn, the king, and the duke. Huck Finn is the main character in the story and JimÃ¢â¬â¢s best friend. The king and the duke are thieves who force Huck and Jim to let them on their boat. Jim and Huck are dynamic characters. Their personalities and feelings on issues change throughout the story. The king and the duke are static characters. They are greedy thieves only out for themselves and they remain this way throughout the entire story. Two minor characters in this story are Mary Jane and the Widow Douglas.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Managers have subordinates Ã¢â¬â people who operate at levels below the managersÃ¢â¬â¢. 10 In summary10 Leadership and Adaptability10 4. Communication and interpersonal relationships11 4. 1 Explanation11 4. 2 Barriers11 5. Development opportunities12 5. 1 Personal style14 5. 2 Personal development16 M4. 01: Understanding the management role (Work based assignment) 1. Introduction 1. 1 My Role Ã¢â¬â Principle Desktop Engineer Ã¢â¬ ¢ Medway Council. The council employs around 7,000 people in a wide variety of general and specialist roles. Staff are based in the two main offices: Gun Wharf Chatham Maritime and Civic Centre in Strood. As well as in schools, social services centres and leisure, countryside, heritage and arts centres. Ã¢â¬ ¢ My role within the organisation is Principle Desktop Engineer. I currently have a team of 8 engineers and an apprentice. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The main purpose of the job is to manage the desktop engineer team, providing an effective and efficient desktop service to Medway Council. A full Job description (JDQ) is listed at appendix 1. 2. Medway Council Medway Council is a unitary council responsible for providing services, including education and social services, in Rochester, Strood, Chatham, Gillingham, Rainham, the nearby rural areas and the Hoo Peninsula. The council also ensures that people comply with regulations, supports business and tourism in Medway and works to include everyone and regenerate the area. Services People who need services can find information on our website or at the councilÃ¢â¬â¢s main offices, the town centre contact points as well as in local papers and radio and in the free magazine for residents, Medway Matters. You can also pay online for many services, including council tax, rent and parking fines and also complain if services are not up to your expectations. Decisions Decisions about our services are made after asking people for their views about, for example, what core values should underpin decisions and much more. Councillors make decisions about everything from refuse collection to regeneration of the area. It is their job to ensure that services are provided cost effectively, where they are needed and without discrimination. Council meetings are publicised in advance and members of the public are welcome to attend. Partnership Working in partnership with others to tackle problems effectively and campaign is co-ordinated through the Local Strategic Partnership and set out in the community plan. Other examples of partnership working are the Children and Young PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Partnership and Community Safety Partnership (CSP). Employer As an employer of around 7,000 people, Medway Council offers full and part-time career opportunities. 2. 1 The councilÃ¢â¬â¢s vision Ã¢â¬ ¢ The CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s vision for Medway is that Medway will be thriving, confident and healthy, a place where people are proud to live, work and learn. There will be opportunities for everyone to achieve and succeed, and to get the most out of life. We will celebrate the diversity of our communities, tackling disadvantage in all its forms. The local economy will grow an increasing number and range of jobs created by the expansion of existing businesses and the attraction of new ones. With a University for Medway offering opportunities for all local people, we will have a highly educated and skilled workforce, able to meet the needs of employers. Economic prosperity and progress will not however, be achieved at the expense of the environment. People living in Medway will enjoy a high quality of life, with decent, affordable housing. There will be a responsive transport system, helping to reduce traffic congestion. We will improve the environment and maintain it for future generations. Ã¢â¬ ¢ This can only be achieved through the participation of all Ã¢â¬â the community, the Council, businesses and others sharing ambition and responsibility. We will listen to local people and jointly take pride in improving the place where we live. Networks of voluntary groups working with local people will be encouraged. Medway Council will provide high quality services, always working to improve value for money. Over and above this the Council will consult and involve local people so that decisions are taken on spending limited resources together. The Council will co-coordinate partnerships across boundaries to achieve common objectives. Medway Council will seek to set an example as a good and fair employer. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Medway matters Ã¢ â¬â there is no limit to what we can achieve. Working together we will shape the future of Medway and create an environment of flourishing communities with people who fulfil their potential. . 2 Organisational structure The council is made up of two directorates: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Children and Adults Ã¢â¬ ¢ Regeneration, Community and Culture An additional partnership with NHS Medway includes: Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Public Health Directorate An organisational chart can be found at appendix 2 with a management role table at appendix 3. 2. 2. 1 Functional areas and managerial roles in relation to its purpose Under the Medway Council Personal Development Review (PDR) there are several personal qualities and attributes (PQAs) which middle managers are assessed against: Commitment to diversity and integrity Ã¢â¬â promoting and managing diversity and demonstrating a fair and ethical approach in all situations Ã¢â¬ ¢ Openness to change Ã¢â¬â proactively supporting change, seeking opportunities to pr omote improved organizational effectiveness Ã¢â¬ ¢ Confidence and resilience Ã¢â¬â consistently projecting and promoting a confident, controlled and focused attitude in highly challenging situations Ã¢â¬ ¢ Working with others Ã¢â¬â leading, involving and motivating others both within Medway and in the community Ã¢â¬ ¢ Effective communication Ã¢â¬â communicating effectively oth orally and in writing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Commitment to development Ã¢â¬â committed and able to develop self, individuals and teams to improve organisational effectiveness Ã¢â¬ ¢ Problem solving Ã¢â¬â understanding and applying relevant information to make appropriate decisions which reflect key priorities and requirements Ã¢â¬ ¢ Situational awareness Ã¢â¬â maintaining an active awareness of the environment to promote safe and effective working Ã¢â¬ ¢ Commitment to excellence Ã¢â¬â leading groups to achieve excellence by the establishment, maintaining and managing performance requirements Ã¢â¬ ¢ Planning and implementing Ã¢â¬â creating and implementing effective plans to deliver a range of organizational objectives Ã¢â¬ ¢ Political/organizational awareness Ã¢â¬â recognizing the potential political impact and implications of actions from a strategic perspective These are primarily for operational staff but there is an expectation that all middle managers fulfil these roles. 2. 3 Stakeholders and their objectives A stakeholder is any individual or organisation that is affected by the activities of a business. They may have a direct or indirect interest in the business, and may be in contact with the business on a daily basis, or may just occasionally. Our main stake holders are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Members Ã¢â¬â they are elected, accountable and drive values and activities. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Staff Ã¢â¬â they will be interested in job security and pay. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Agencies Ã¢â¬â Shools, NHS, Housing, Police, Highways, Waste and Building Control. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Other authorities Ã¢â¬â SE7, a partnership of seven councils that have committed to working together to improve quality of services and to achieve savings. Stakeholders have an interest in the company but do not own it. I would suggest that most people would say the public would be the main stakeholder as the end-user. However there is a stakeholder matrix which is used to assess how much power and influence they have to an organisation. Using this then influences how much attention/priority the organisation should allocate to each. [pic] 3. The role of management in achieving goals To achieve its goals and ensure that the stakeholderÃ¢â¬â¢s interests are continually analysed and met, the council employs middle managers. The council goals can only be achieved if everyone works as a team and supports the council vision and values. Middle managers are an important component of this team. Middle managers have a responsibility within the organisation to implement at an operational level, the policy and programs set out by the senior managers and directors. They have a strong impact on the outcome of customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction and the efficiency and development of the organisation. Middle managers within the company also act as role models who interpret and represent the company; they communicate and track the different goals and policies ensuring information flows up as well as down. 3. 1 Responsibilities of middle managers Middle managers relay strategic objections from senior managers to their subordinates. They set local targets, review and evaluate, and report back to senior managers. Communication is therefore crucial in the organisation to ensure everyone fully understands their roles and responsibilities. Middle managers play an important role in promulgating information to their staff from senior managers in an appropriate manner and understandable language to ensure duties are carried out efficiently and effectively, as we have a duty as Ã¢â¬Å"public servantsÃ¢â¬ to provide value for money. In essence they make it Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ . Various systems are in place to enable middle managers to provide evaluation on targets to senior managers, and provide data for Best Value Performance Indicators (BVPIs). AdairÃ¢â¬â¢s Action Centred Leadership model can be used to show how middle managers can show achievement towards the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals: By Achieving the Task By Developing the Team By Developing Individuals Importantly as well, Adair set out these core functions of leadership and says they are vital to the Action Centred Leadership model: Planning Ã¢â¬â seeking information, defining tasks, setting aims Ã¢â¬ ¢ Initiating Ã¢â¬â briefing, task allocation, setting standards Ã¢â¬ ¢ Controlling Ã¢â¬â maintaining standards, ensuring progress, on-going decision-making Ã¢â¬ ¢ Supporting Ã¢â¬â individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ contributions, encouraging, team spirit, reconciling, morale Ã¢â¬ ¢ Informing Ã¢â¬â clarifying tasks and plans, updating, receiving feedback and interpreting Ã¢â¬ ¢ Evaluating Ã¢â¬â feasibility of ideas, performance, enabling self assessment Following training, Medway Council middle managers are involved in recruiting staff, conduct appraisals and performance management and absence management, in accordance with service procedures. Middle managers are specialists within their department or team. . 3. 2 Leadership/Management styles How you talk to your staff, how you motivate, how you delegate, how you solve problems and how you make decisions will depend on you view your role as a manager or as a leader. The table at appendix 4 lists the different styles. 3. 3 To lead or to manage You need both. The old proverb says that leadership is doing the right thing; management is doing things right. The difference between the two is not as sharp as the saying would suggest, and both are required for effective corporate growth: leadership risk creates opportunities while management strictness turns them into tangible results. Ã¢â¬Å"If your organization is not on a journey donÃ¢â¬â¢t bother about leadership Ã¢â¬â just settle for managementÃ¢â¬ advises John Adair. Ã¢â¬Å"There is a direct correlation between the way people view their managers and the way they performÃ¢â¬  Leadership vs. Management What is the difference between management and leadership? The biggest difference between managers and leaders is the way they motivate the people who work or follow them, and this sets the tone for most other aspects of what they do. Many people are both. They have management jobs, but they realize that you cannot buy hearts, especially to follow them down a difficult path, and so act as leaders too. Managers have subordinates Ã¢â¬â people who operate at levels below the managersÃ¢â¬â¢. Leaders have followers, leaders do not have subordinates Ã¢â¬â at least not when they are leading. Many organizational leaders do have subordinates, but only because they are also managers. But when they want to lead, they have to give up formal authoritarian control, because to lead is to have followers, and following is always a voluntary activity. In summary The table at appendix 5 summarizes the differences between being a leader and being a manager. This is, of course, an illustrative characterisation, and there is a whole spectrum between either end of these scales along which each person can range. Leadership and Adaptability We know that what will inspire or motivate one staff member, will not inspire or motivate another; managers therefore need to be adaptable in their responses to staff. 4. Communication and interpersonal relationships 4. 1 Explanation Interpersonal communication is a crucial part of your everyday life, yet you probably rarely think about the way in which you interact with other individuals. DeVito defines interpersonal communications as Ã¢â¬Å"communication that takes place between two persons who have an established relationship; the people are in some way Ã¢â¬ËconnectedÃ¢â¬â¢ Thus, as interpersonal communication can occur between romantic partners, business associates, doctors and patients, etc. , it permeates our lives. Often, you devote your interpersonal interactions to attempts at influencing the other individual in some way. 4. 2 Barriers One thing IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen as an inhibitor is people like to communicate in different ways. So as a manager, we need to really seek to understand for each person, what they prefer. Some may like short 1-1 sessions that focus on quick communication of facts. Some may like longer communication sessions and be comfortable talking about personal life. Some may want weekly 1-1s, some bi-weekly. Trying to tailor the communication style in personal interactions is important. Another inhibitor IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen is globally dispersed teams where communication can often take the form of instant message conversations and emails. I find that at least on occasion, suggesting a quick 5 minute call to cover something can really be of value Ã¢â¬â allows a more personal level of communication and can also allow for Ã¢â¬Å"off topicÃ¢â¬ communication which can help people connect. Management is based on communication but being able to transfer that into drivers, performance, motivation and sustainability needs leadership and empowerment skills. It is the basis of trust building. You can give someone a reprimand or praise and even both over a coffee and with genuine commitment you have a strong bond to build on. It converts into motivation when focused right. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not just about communicating Ã¢â¬â itÃ¢â¬â¢s about several crucial interplays of trust, motivation, inspiration, support and leadership. The main barriers we come across are solved on a trust related basis. Even a simple barrier like arriving late for work is a mountain without trust. Bottom line is each team player is different Ã¢â¬â respect will give you the ability to enter and discuss. Trust will aid the action planÃ¢â¬ ¦ then follow up and reward progress mechanisms facilitate team building and mentoring. 5. Development opportunities Every council employee has a PDR covering: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Performance over the last 6/12 months, achieved objectives/targets, areas of good performance. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Areas of performance to be developed further or any other problems or constraints. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Agreed priority objectives/targets for next 12 months (including any Corporate Plan objectives/targets). Ã¢â¬ ¢ Review of development and training over last 12 months. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Agreed future development. Ã¢â¬ ¢ section/department/authority. Ã¢â¬ ¢ ManagerÃ¢â¬â¢s comments. Ã¢â¬ ¢ EmployeeÃ¢â¬â¢s comments All managers will manage differently as no two people are the same. However if a manager is able to critically appraise their own performance they will be able to identify areas to be developed, or at least to be aware of. The Johari Window (Loft and Hingham) is a widely used model for understanding and training self-awareness, personal development, improving communications, interpersonal relationships, group dynamics, team development and inter-group relationships.  [pic] 1. The public area contains things that are openly known and talked about and which may be seen as strengths or weaknesses. This is the self that we choose to share with others 2. The hidden area contains things that others observe that we donÃ¢â¬â¢t know about. Again, they could be positive or negative behaviours, and will affect the way that others act towards us. 3. The unknown area contains things that nobody knows about us Ã¢â¬â including ourselves. This may be because weÃ¢â¬â¢ve never exposed those areas of our personality, or because theyÃ¢â¬â¢re buried deep in the subconscious. 4. The private area contains aspects of our self that we know about and keep hidden from others. 5. 1 Personal style The main two styles used by myself now are Negotiating and Facilitating I carried out a self-assessment and had three of staff carry out the assessment for comparison. All four assessments are fairly well balanced showing my main two styles are: Negotiating and Facilitating. Appendix 6 is my self-assessment. Appendix 7 is an assessment by one of my senior engineers. This shows a lower result for Directing and a higher result for Laissez-faire when compared to the other two staff assessments. This person is experienced, knowledgeable and trustworthy and has pride in his work. Appendix 8 is an assessment by one of my junior engineers. This shows an increase in Directing and a small decrease in Laissez-faire. This person is competent but still requires a little coaching at times. Appendix 9 is an assessment by a fairly new member of staff. This shows a significant increase in Directing and a small decrease in Laissez-faire. This person being fairly new to the team still requires Directing while he gets used to the policies and working practices of the organisation. From the assessment results, it is clear that my main two leadership styles are Negotiating and Facilitating, this fits in well with the organisation and is both encouraged and supported by the business. I believe I use the following styles: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Style 1 Ã¢â¬â the directing or telling leader. This style I use on new members of staff and for projects that are high priority and need to be completed by the book. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Style Ã¢â¬â 2 the coaching or selling leader. I use this style when dealing with the every day workloads, I have two senior engineers who manage the internal and external work queues seperately. I leave them to orghanise there own schedule but monitor both queues and expect feed back from them. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Style 3 Ã¢â¬â the supporting or participating leader. I use this style during when I have smaller projects that I can delegate to my engineers knowing that they are fully capable of achieving the goals laid down. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Style 4 Ã¢â¬â the delegating leader. I use this when I delegate more complex projects to my senior engineers knowing that they are fully capable of achieving the goals set out and will seek my advice/approval if any changes are required during the project. 5. 2 Personal development My areas for self improvement would be: 1. Communication, change leadership is enhanced when leaders communicate a little at a time, as often as possible, in as many different ways as possible, and providing as many different perspectives as possible. Once team members have built their own personal model of the future and have checked it out against the reality of what is happening on the ground, so that they can once again begin to make their own decisions, the communication process will have served its purpose. This could be achieved by allowing time for more team meetings to pass on any changes that may be in the pipeline, get an update on how the team feel in general. What has worked Ã¢â¬â can we improve on current working practices to give an improved and more efficient service to the organisation. What hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t worked and why, analyse where the task went wrong and see if it can be avoided in the future, lessons learnt. Finally to give praise/rewards where/if appropriate. 2. Self awareness, more patience with both team members and customers, being an autocratic leader for 20 years leaves its mark. My own personal development plan can be found at appendix 10 Possible organisational improvements: 1. Review working practices on a regular basis and try to improve on them making work more productive, efficient leading to a more effective service to the organisation [pic][pic] Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â  Medway Council website  Adair, 1997  DeVito, J. A. (2004). The interpersonal communication book, 10th ed. Boston: Pearson-Allyn & Bacon.  Google Images
Saturday, January 4, 2020
(Continued From Profile of Sadistic Killer Charles Ng) Ng Changes His Identity to Mike Komoto As investigators uncovered the grisly crime scene at the bunker, Charles Ng was on the run. Investigators learned from Leonard Lakes ex-wife, Claralyn Balasz, that Ng contacted her shortly after running from the lumberyard. She met with him and agreed to drive him to his apartment for clothing and to pick up a paycheck. She said he was carrying a gun, ammunition, two fake I.D.s in the name of Mike Komoto and that she let him off at the San Francisco airport, but did not know where he was going. Busted On Shoplifting In Canada Ngs movement was traced from San Francisco to Chicago to Detroit and then into Canada. The investigation uncovered enough evidence to charge Ng with 12 counts of murder. Ng managed to avoid authorities for over a month, but his poor shoplifting abilities landed him in jail in Calvary after he fought with the arresting police and shot one of them in the hand. Ng was in a Canadian jail, charged with robbery, attempted robbery, possession of a firearm and attempted murder. U.S. authorities became aware of Ngs arrest, but because Canada had abolished the death penalty, extradition of Ng to the U.S. was refused. U.S. authorities were permitted to interview Ng in Canada at which time Ng blamed Lake for most of the killings at the bunker but admitted to being involved in the disposal of the bodies. His trial for the robbery and assault charges in Canada resulted in a sentence of four-and-a-half years, which he spent learning about U.S. laws. Cartoons Drawn By Ng Tell All Ng also entertained himself by drawing cartoons depicting murder scenes, some that contained details of killings that replicated those that went on at Wilseyville that only someone involved in the murders would have known. One other factor that sealed little doubt of Ngs involvement in the pairs killing spree was one witness who Ng had left for dead, but survived. The witness identified Ng as the man who attempted to kill him, rather than Lake. Ng Is Extradited To The U.S. After a six-year battle between the U.S. Justice Department and Canada, Charles Ng was extradited to the U.S. on Sept. 26, 1991, to face trial on 12 murder charges. Ng, familiar with American laws, worked relentlessly to delay his trial. Ultimately, Ngs case became one of the most costly cases in U.S. history, costing taxpayers an estimated $6.6 million for the extradition efforts alone. Ng Begins To Play With The U.S. Legal System When Ng reached the U.S. he and his team of lawyers began to manipulate the legal system with endless delay tactics that included formal complaints about receiving bad food and bad treatment. Ng also filed a $1 million malpractice suit against lawyers he had dismissed at various times during his pre-trial hearings. Ng also wanted his trial to be moved to Orange County, a motion that would be presented to California Supreme Court at least five times before it was upheld. Ngs Trial Finally Begins In October 1998, after 13 years of various delays and $10 million in costs, the trial of Charles Chitat Ng began. His defense team presented Ng as being an unwilling participant and was forced to take part in Lakes sadistic murder spree. Because of the videos presented by the prosecutors showing Ng forcing two women to engage in sex after threatening them with knives, the defense admitted that Ng merely participate in the sexual offenses. Ng insisted on taking the stand, which allowed prosecutors to submit more evidence that helped define Ngs role in all aspects of the ghoulish crimes that went on in the bunker, including murder. One significant piece of evidence presented were pictures of Ng standing in his cell with the telling cartoons he had sketched of the victims hanging on the wall behind him. A Fast Decision From The Jury After years of delays, several tons of paperwork, millions of dollars, and many of the victims loved ones deceased, the trial of Charles Ng ended. The jury deliberated for a few hours and returned with a verdict of guilty of the murder of six men, three women, and two babies. The jury recommended the death penalty, a sentence that trial Judge Ryan imposed. The List of Known Victims Other pieces of bone found on the property indicated that over 25 other people were killed by Lake and Ng. Investigators suspect that many were homeless and recruited to the property to help build the bunker, then killed. Kathleen Allen and her boyfriend, Michael Carroll.Investigators believe that Kathleen was lured to the cabin when Lake told her that Michael had been shot. Kathleen was one of the two women who appeared on the video as Lake and Ng mentally and physically tortured her, eventually raping and killing her. Michael was a suspected drug dealer who at one time was a cellmate of Ngs at Leavenworth.Brenda OConnor, Lonnie Bond and baby Lonnie Jr.Brenda and her common-law husband, Lonnie, were next door neighbors ofÃ LeonardÃ Lake. Brenda was shown on the video begging for knowledge of her babys welfare while the two taunted her and threatened her and the life of her baby if she failed to cooperate with their sexual demands. It is believed that at the time the video was made, Lonnie and Lonnie Jr. had already been killed.Harvey Dubs, Deborah Dubs and baby Sean Dubs.It is believed that the family was murdered after Lake answered an advertisement for camera equipment that Harvey was selling.R obin Scott StapleyRandy JohnsonCharles The Fat Man Gunnar - Leonard Lakes best man.Donald Lake - Leonards brother.Paul Cosner - The owner of the Honda. Charles Ng sits on death row at San Quentin prison in California. He advertises himself online as a dolphin caught inside a tuna net. He continues to appeal his death sentence and it may take several years for his sentence to be carried out. Return to Profile of Charles Ng Source:Justice Denied - The Ng Case bu Joseph Harrington and Robert BurgerJourney into Darkness by John E. Douglas
Friday, December 27, 2019
ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL, KOLKATA MARKETING PLAN FOR STELLAR THE ONLY INDIAN LOW NICOTINE CIGARETTE SUBMITTED TO PROF. RAHUL GUPTA GROUP MEMBERS: SHIV CHARAN SASTRY (08BS0002843) SAURABH MURGAI (08BS0003012) SAMEER SRIVASTAVA (08BS0002908) SHREYANS JAIN (08BS0003182) SHUBHREET PARMAR (08BS0003209) SHANTANU SHEKHAR (08BS0003078) TANVI SONI (08BS000 KUSH MEHENSARIA (08BS0004128) EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Indian Cigarettes Tobacco Products market is a huge opportunity for any company that wishes to gain a foothold in this industry. The industry is dominated by a few major players, namely ITC Ltd., Godfrey Phillips India Ltd., Vazir Sultan Tobacco Ltd., and Golden Tobacco Company Ltd. Together these companies holdÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¢ VAZIR SULTAN TOBACCO COMPANY (VST): Vazir Sultan Tobacco Company is the next biggest player with 8% market share. It is in collaboration with the BAT Group UK. The company is headquartered in Hyderabad, India. Ã¢â¬ ¢ GOLDEN TOBACCO COMPANY (GTC): GTC is one of the minor players in the industry, with a market share of approximately 4-5%. It is headquartered in Mumbai, India. CATEGORY ANALYSIS Ã¢â¬ ¢ Category Size and Growth: There are approximately 120 million smokers in India , about 37 percent of all men and 5 percent of all women between the ages of 21 and 69. The market is expected to grow at a rate of about 15% per annum , which makes it very lucrative. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Stage in Product Life Cycle: Cigarettes lie at the maturity stage of the product life cycle, as the market is not growing at an exponential rate, or declining. But the fact that Low Nicotine Cigarettes are relatively new to the market and have certainly not reached the maximum sales potential, these will lie in the Growth stage. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sales Cyclicity and Seasonality: Cigarettes generally do not show any type of seasonality or cyclicity in sales. Even though some experts argue that sales increase in winter seasons, no such trend is observed in India. SWOT ANALYSIS STRENGTHS 1) Strong Distribution Channel Godfrey Philips has a strong Distribution Channel comprising of more than 500 distributors and 800,000 retail outlets. The Distribution Channel coversShow MoreRelatedExample of Product Strategy13854 Words Ã |Ã 56 Pagesencompassing a wide range of businesses - Cigarettes Tobacco, Hotels, Information Technology, Packaging, Paperboards Specialty Papers, Agri-Exports, Foods, Lifestyle Retailing and Greeting Gifting Stationery - the full stops in the Companys name were removed effective September 18, 2001. The Company now stands rechristened ITC Limited. 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Thursday, December 19, 2019
During the 2012 London Olympics Nike Launched their Ã¢â¬Å"Find your Greatness CampaignÃ¢â¬ . This Campaign was meant to make the everyday athlete strive to their personal goals and achieve greatness. Nike tried to differentiate itself from competitors by featuring amateur athletes compared to professional athletes. Nike intended to propose their idea of greatness, trying to show itÃ¢â¬â¢s not restricted for only the chosen few. But rather, it is something we are all capable of. Their message was to inspire anyone who wants to achieve greatness and that Nike products, from shoes to watches to shorts, would help you achieve this, as well as helping to motivate yourself to do more. In the commercial titled Ã¢â¬Å"The JoggerÃ¢â¬ , a part of the Ã¢â¬Å"Find your GreatnessÃ¢â¬ campaign, proves to be convincing through intense emotional appeal, the strong credibility from Nike, and the logical feeling that we can all achieve greatness. The commercial starts out silent, panning over a open road, out in the country, with a single silhouette of a person running at the end of it. You can slightly hear the sound of the runners shoes scraping the asphalt and his heavy breathing. The narrator then begins to talk about greatness. How it s just something we made up, and many of us believe that it s a gift reserved for a few chosen, and that the rest can only stand by and watch. All while the runner is getting closer to the camera, at this point you can now tell that he is overweight kid and struggling to run at a mereShow MoreRelatedNikes Imc Plan5035 Words Ã |Ã 21 Pages1 NIKE 64th Intake/ DSM 402 / Group assignment for Marketing Communication We declare that this report is 3991 words in length Cordially consolidated by: Leader: Michelle Zheng Pei Yi (S8822344Z) Members: Noorjanah Khatoon Bte Mohd Khan Sarattee (S7930425E) Eugene Nah (S7925122D) Nike Huang PeiLing (S8827406G) 1|Page 2 NIKE Content Page 1.1 Nature of BusinessÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦... Page 3 1.2 Nike Origin and BackgroundÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦... Page 3 1.3 Nike PopularityÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Read MoreStrategic Analysis of Nike Inc12147 Words Ã |Ã 49 PagesTABLE OF CONTENTS Executive SummaryÃâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦.Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦p.4 HistoryÃâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦..Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦..p.6 Profile of CEOÃâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦.Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦..p.7 Competitor s ProfileÃâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦.Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦.p.7 Industry ProfileÃâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦..p.8 Company AnalysisÃâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦p.9 Industry AnalysisÃâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦......p.24 Top Competitor AnalysisÃâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦.p.25 Other External ForcesÃâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Read MoreNike Strategy Analysis12215 Words Ã |Ã 49 Pagesp.30 Strategic PlanÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..p.33 ConclusionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...p.38 LIST OF EXHIBITS 1. Sales Trends GraphÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦p.5 2. Net Income Trends GraphÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.p.5 3. Nike Board of Directors TableÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...p.11 4. Table of Key Financial RatiosÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...p.22 5. Net Income Trend GraphÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦..p.24 6. Primary Strategic Match Position ChartÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Read MoreLululemon Case Analysis Essay4336 Words Ã |Ã 18 PagesPotdiven Chief Executive Officer Lululemon Athletica Inc. This report has been created with the intent to analyze the athletic apparel industry with a specific focus on Lululemon Athletica, Inc., further refered to as Lululemon. In this report you will find that the strengths and weaknesses of LululemonÃ¢â¬â¢s current strategies and future goals are analyzed and compared to that of its closest competitors. In conclusion to the analysis, recommendations have been made to potentially guide Lululemon AthleticaRead MoreCelebrity Endorsements19810 Words Ã |Ã 80 Pagesnewspapers, and on billboards, websites, radio and television. Every brand attempts to steal at least a fraction of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s time to inform him or her of the amazing and different attributes of the product at hand. The challenge of the marketer is to find a hook that will hold the subjectÃ¢â¬â¢s attention.In helping to achieve this, use of celebrity endorsers is a widely used marketing strategy. In this modern age, people tend to ignore all commercials and advertisem ents while flipping through the magazinesRead MoreMarketing Mistakes and Successes175322 Words Ã |Ã 702 Pages PREFACE Welcome to the 30th anniversary of Marketing Mistakes and Successes with this 11th edition. Who would have thought that interest in mistakes would be so enduring? Many of you are past users, a few even for decades. I hope you will find this new edition a worthy successor to earlier editions. I think this may even be my best book. The new Google and Starbucks cases should arouse keen student interest, and may even inspire another generation of entrepreneurs. A fair number of theRead MoreCelebrity Endorsement8369 Words Ã |Ã 34 Pageswhere brands prefer to compete on - right from hiring the best advertising agencies to getting the biggest celebrities. What would be the formula to success then? Well, a good creative agency, a large enough promotional budget and a huge star to endorse your brand would definitely ensure in the minds of a brand management team a feeling of security, success and a triumph over the competitors brand. The general belief among advertisers is that brand communication messages delivered by celebrities andRead MoreBrand Building Blocks96400 Words Ã |Ã 386 PagesBRAND BUILDING BLOCKS Building Strong Brands: Why Is It Hard? It is not easy to build brands in today s environment. The brand builder who attempts to develop a strong brand is like a golfer playing on a course with heavy roughs, deep sand traps, sharp doglegs, and vast water barriers. It is difficult to score well in such conditions. Substantial pressures and barriers, both internal and external, can inhibit the brand builder. To be able to develop effective brand strategies, it is useful toRead Moretransformational leaders in sports9224 Words Ã |Ã 37 Pagesfor four years, but returned in 1996, at age 36, to play 32Ã games for the Lakers before retiring for the third and final time. Johnson s career achievements include threeÃ NBA MVP Awards, nineÃ NBA FinalsÃ appearances, twelveÃ All-StarÃ games, and tenÃ All-NBAÃ First and Second Team nominations. He led the league in regular-seasonÃ assistsÃ four times, and is the NBA s all-time leader in average assists per game, at 11.2.Ã Johnson was a member of the Dream Team, the U.S. basketball team that won theÃ OlympicÃ goldRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 Pagesbuilt-in pretests and posttests, focus on what you need to learn and to review in order to succeed. Visit www.mymanagementlab.com to learn more. DEVELOPING MANAGEMENT SKILLS EIGHTH EDITION David A. Whetten BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY Kim S. Cameron UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Prentice Hall Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
On a mission to Rome in 151011 he was appalled b Essay aba y the corruptionhe found there. Money was greatly needed at the time for the rebuilding ofSt. Peters, and papal emissaries sought everywhere to raise funds by thesale of indulgences. The system was grossly abused, and Luthersindignation at the shameless traffic, carried on in particular by theDominican Johann Tetzel, became irrepressible. As professor of biblicalexegesis at Wittenberg (151246), he began to preach the doctrine ofsalvation by faith rather than works; and on 31 October 1517 drew up alist of 95 theses on indulgences denying the pope any right to forgivesins, and nailed them on the church door at Wittenberg. Tetzel retreatedfrom Saxony to Frankfurt-an-der-Oder, where he published a set of counter-theses and burnt Luthers. The Wittenberg students retaliated by burningTetzels, and in 1518 Luther was joined in his views by Melanchthon.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Summary of Platos Protagoras Essay Summary Protagoras * In PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s dialogue Ã¢â¬Å"ProtagorasÃ¢â¬ Socrates tells a companion his experience and interview with a man he deems fairer than Alcibiades. His name is then revealed to be Protagoras. * Protagoras is described as a wise man because if one makes friends with him and gives him money, he would make the benefactor as wise as he is himself. From this it can be understood that Protagoras has the gift of speech. He is able to persuade a man as well as have him to whatever he wishes. A Socrates question that, if soul is more sacred than body, why does Hippocrates choose Protagoras over his family and friends to consult in the matter. He believes that Hippocrates does not even know what a Sophist truly is but still chooses to offer his soul to him. * Socrates believes that the food of the soul. He compares a Sophist to a dealer and as all dealers they praise all of their goods indiscriminately. So the customer is in danger of purchasing something that may harm him. If one is not a specialist in the particular field he may be cheated. When absorbing the knowledge of a Sophist one should also be careful and calculate what knowledge is useful to him, as the knowledge will have effects on the soul. * Then Protagoras says that by associating with him, he would make Hippocrates a better man by sharing his wisdom daily. He would teach him prudence in private and public affairs, teach him to order his house in the best manner, teach him speak in the affairs of the state. So to say, teach politics and make a good citizen out of him. * However, Socrates doubts this. He says in the affairs of the state every citizen has a say and it does not matter if he is or is not taught politics. As well, he says that if a man does gain wisdom there is no guarantee that he would share it with others or be acknowledged for it. * Although, the man is given the gift of wisdom in comparison to other animals, he is not able to govern himself properly, which results in raging, never-ending wars and conflict. Every man if taught properly can attain needed skills (medicine, sciences), however, those already able to teach did not choose lightly their pupils. We will write a custom essay sample on Summary of Platos Protagoras specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Summary of Platos Protagoras specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Summary of Platos Protagoras specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Good and bad qualities may be influenced by nature and chance. * A rational man does not punish in regards of the past (something that cannot be undone) but thinking about the future. He punishes to prevent the wrong from repeating so as emphasising that virtue may be taught. A man punishes those he believes are evildoers. * Protagoras believes that justice, temperance and holiness must be taught to all who wish to learn. If the pupil does wrong, he must be punished so he would become better. Those who refuse should be exiled or sentenced to death, as they would be deemed as incurable. * People teach each other their virtues according to their own abilities. It may be difficult to find a teacher for an expert artisan but easy for one who is a complete beginner. * Virtue may be divided into parts, for example, justice, temperance, and holiness. Although, they are all related, they also differ. They each have their own function. * It is said that each quality or action has only one opposite but both temperance and wisdom were concluded to have the same opposite folly. Later, the characters analyse poems. It is said that it may be hard to become good but impossible to remain good as a man makes mistakes and has weaknesses. Circumstances may make the man lose his goodness. They question what makes a man good. It is said that the good man may become bad in time, but the bad man cannot become bad, as he is already bad. * While a good man will feel for those wronged as well as his family and his country, a bad man will gain join and find faults.